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            Illinois

            Illinois flag

            Capital: Springfield

            State abbreviation/Postal code: Ill./IL

            Governor: Bruce Rauner, R (to Jan. 2019)

            Lieut. Governor: Evelyn Sanguinetti, R (to Jan. 2019)

            Senators: Richard J. Durbin, D (to Jan. 2021); Tammy Duckworth, D?(to Jan. 2023)

            U.S. Representatives: 18

            Historical biographies of Congressional members

            Atty. General: Lisa Madigan, D (to Jan. 2019)

            Secy. of State: Jesse White, D (to Jan. 2019)

            Treasurer: Michael W. Frerichs, D (to Jan. 2019)

            Organized as territory: Feb. 3, 1809

            Entered Union (rank): Dec. 3, 1818 (21)

            Present constitution adopted: 1970

            Motto: State sovereignty, national union

            State symbols:

            flowerviolet (1908)
            treewhite oak (1973)
            birdcardinal (1929)
            animalwhite-tailed deer (1982)
            fishbluegill (1987)
            insectmonarch butterfly (1975)
            songa€?Illinoisa€? (1925)
            mineralfluorite (1965)

            Nickname: Prairie State

            Origin of name: Algonquin for a€?tribe of superior mena€?

            10 largest cities (2014): Chicago, 2,714,856; Aurora, 199,932; Rockford, 150,843; Joliet, 148,268; Naperville, 143,684; Springfield, 117,126; Peoria, 115,687; Elgin, 109,927; Waukegan, 88,862; Cicero, 84,137

            Land area: 55,584 sq mi. (143,963 sq km)

            Geographic center: In Logan Co., 28 mi. NE of Springfield

            Number of counties: 102

            Largest county by population and area: Cook, 5,227,992 (2012); McLean, 1,184 sq mi.

            Public use areas: 186 (275,000 ac.), incl. state parks, memorials, forests and conservation areas

            Residents: Illinoisan

            2015 resident population: 12,859,995

            2010 resident census population (rank): 12,830,632 (5). Male: 6,292,276 (49.3%); Female: 6,538,356 (50.7%). White: 9,177,877 (71.5%); Black: 1,866,414 (14.5%); American Indian: 43,963 (0.3%); Asian: 586,934 (4.6%); Other race: 861,412 (6.8%); Two or more races: 289,982 (2.3%); Hispanic/Latino: 2,027,578 (15.8%). 2010 population 18 and over: 9,701,453; 65 and over: 1,609,213; median age: 36.6.

            See additional census data

            Area codes

            Tourism office

            French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet, in 1673, were the first Europeans of record to visit the region. In 1699 French settlers established the first permanent settlement at Cahokia, near present-day East St. Louis. Great Britain obtained the region at the end of the French and Indian Wars in 1763. The area figured prominently in frontier struggles during the Revolutionary War and in Native American?wars during the early 19th century.

            Significant episodes in the state's early history include the influx of settlers following the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825; the Black Hawk War, which virtually ended the Native American troubles in the area; and the rise of Abraham Lincoln from farm laborer to president.

            Today, Illinois stands high in manufacturing, coal mining, agriculture, and oil production. The state's manufactures include food and agricultural products, transportation equipment, chemicals, industrial machinery, and computer equipment. The sprawling Chicago district (including a slice of Indiana) is a great iron and steel producer, meat packer, grain exchange, and railroad center. Chicago is also famous as a Great Lakes port.

            Illinois is a leading producer of soybeans, corn, and hogs. Other agricultural commodities include cattle, wheat, oats, sorghum, and hay.

            Central Illinois is noted for shrines and memorials associated with the life of Abraham Lincoln. In Springfield are the Lincoln Home, the Lincoln Tomb, and the restored Old State Capitol. Other points of interest are the home of Mormon leader Joseph Smith in Nauvoo and, in Chicago: the Art Institute, Field Museum, Museum of Science and Industry, Shedd Aquarium, Adler Planetarium, Merchandise Mart, and Chicago Portage National Historic Site.

            On February 14, 2008, former graduate student Stephen Kazmierczak, 21, opened fire in a classroom on the campus of Northern Illinois University, resulting in 18 casualties and six fatalities, including himself.

            The first Democrat to have been elected governor in 30 years, Rod Blagojevich, was arrested on December 9, 2008, and impeached on January 9, 2009 on charges of corruption. He began serving a fourteen-year prison sentence on March 15, 2012.

            In 2011, the final episode of The Oprah Winfrey Show was aired in Chicago, Ms. Winfrey's adopted home town. It was the longest-running talk show in television history, spanning 25 years and garnering countless awards.

            See more on Illinois:
            Encyclopedia: Illinois
            Encyclopedia: Geography
            Encyclopedia: Economy
            Encyclopedia: Government
            Encyclopedia: History
            Monthly Temperature Extremes

            All U.S. States: Geography & Climate
            Printable Outline Maps
            Record Highest Temperatures
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            Highest, Lowest, and Mean Elevations
            Land and Water Area

            All U.S. States: Population & Economy
            Historical Population Statistics, 1790a€“Present
            Per Capita Personal Income
            Minimum Wage Rates
            State Taxes
            Federal Government Expenditure
            Percent of People in Poverty
            Births and Birth Rates
            Homeownership
            Percentage of Uninsured by State

            All U.S. States: Society & Culture:
            Most Livable States
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            Crime Index
            Residency Requirements for Voting
            Compulsory School Attendance Laws
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            National Public Radio Stations

            Selected famous natives and residents:

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            See also:
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